Looking down on an idealized volcano from above. R is the radius of the cone at sea level. Angle A is portion of the circumference that will slide. In many cases the look-down profile of a volcano is closer to an ellipse than a circle. For example the caldera at Toba on Sumatra to the northwest is roughly an ellipse with a major to minor axis ratio of 3:1 (a circle would be 1:1). A more general solution would be to allow point collapse to be somewhere in the interior so not necessarily at the center. Likewise, the slope collapse need not start at the peak and extend to the circumference. A key difference is whether the slope collapse exposes the magma to seawater.
H1 = the height above sea-level
H2 = the height from sea-level to the local sea floor
I simplified the model and made the triangle isosceles so the peak angle can be calculated as 180-2 times angle B. It was not obvious that it was worth the bother of making a user enter the two base angles if the triangle was scalene. Part of that was the feeling that what is being represented is not a triangle but rather a cone. Similarly, the base angles of the trapezoid were taken as equal (forming an isosceles trapezoid) just for simplicity. What really matters is more what the contents and volume of the magma chamber are. The angles do have a mild influence how the collapsing slope falls. A shield volcano could be characterized by gentle upper slopes (about 5o) and somewhat steeper lower slopes (about 10o). Stratovolcanoes have steeper slopes than shield volcanoes, with slopes of 6 to 10o low on the flanks to 30o near the top. Slopes of cinder cones are controlled by the angle of repose (angle of stable slope for loose unconsolidated material) and are usually between about 25 and 35o.
The municipal area labelled Tanjungkarang-Telukbetung is more commonly known as Bandar Lampung and can be described as being at the northern end of Lampung Bay.A major tsunami flowing northward from the Sunda Strait would savage the coastal areas in red. The metropolitan area of Bandar Lampung is the capital of the province and has been undergoing rapid population growth. The 2010 census gave a tally of just over 880,000. The 2020 census will likely show between 1,200,000 and 1,300,000. The topology of the bay will funnel the wave and intensify the impact.
Portion of the Sunda Strait between Sumatra (north) and Java (south). The Krakatoa archipelago are the islands in green in the lower right of the upper image and in the upper middle of the lower image. The name Sunda comes from the Indonesian word Pasundan meaning West Java. The people of that area are referred to as Sundanese. The Sunda Strait becomes progressively more shallow as one moves from west to east: the depth is only 20 meters at the eastern end. Even without volcanic eruptions and tsunamis the Sunda Strait is notoriously difficult to navigate due to oil derricks, sandbanks and very strong tidal flows. Virtually all larger modern large ships hauling oil or containers use the Strait of Malacca instead. Fans of World War II military history will recall the Battle of the Sunda Strait on March 1 1942. Australian cruiser HMAS Perth and American cruiser USS Houston encountered an escorted Japanese invasion convoy and were sunk. Some 20 years ago there was quite a lot of work done designing a series of bridges – as far as I am aware the project had been shelved by the current government.
When Mt. Tambora in Indonesia erupted catastrophically on April 10 in 1815 it was by far the most powerful eruption in over 800 years. The previous record-holder was thought to be Baekdu on the Korean-Chinese border sometime around 969 AD. There were no geologists or seismographs or much else at the earlier eruption. Later (2013 after some years of forensic searching and analysis), the 1257 AD eruption of Samalas on Lombok island in Indonesia was judged to be more powerful that Baekdu.
A few other vulcanologists obsessed with the past and I were concerned when there was a cluster of earthquakes near the caldera (shown above and the small blue area in the middle below) earlier this year. Today, the lake covers 45 square kilometers (17 square miles), with dimensions of 7.5 km by 6.0 km (4.7 miles by 3.7 miles) with a maximum depth of 230 meters (750 ft). From the water temperature it is obvious that there is plenty of magma remaining.
Some of the earlier blog entries about Lombok
Now Nh2 only nets a piece for a pawn after … bxe4 Qxe4 and something like qf5 or qd5
But Ng5 can get the Black Queen for 2 pieces. Black plays bxg5 followed by Bxh5 bxd2 and Rxd2.
Or Black can squeeze into h4 which will be followed by g3 and qh6.
The bruising Nxf7. The queen is attacked. The rook at d8 is attacked. If qxh3 then Bg4. The bishop cannot be taken due to the knight fork – Nh6+. However, Black does play qxh3 and White replies Bf1. This followed by qh5 (forced) and finally Bg4. Resigns.
Presumably, the idea would be to move as slowly as possible – something like Yi Quan.
In the rapid section of the consolation match Caruana had been Aronian in the second game. But Aronian won the first two blitz games to even the match. Then Aronian lost the third game and could not get a win in the fourth game.
In the meantime in the championship match Nakamura and Vachier-Lagrave had played two classical games, two rapid games and three blitz games – all draws. Nakamura is white in the game below
obviously meant to be used with one hand as that is a shield behind the weapon. Three other currently available versions: tsukubo (upper left); sasumata (upper right) and sodegarami (bottom).
A link to our website’s fork pages http://silverwolfwushu.com/WeaponsForks.html